Aims: To study whether the time to insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients in primary care in Germany and UK has increased (). Methods. Objective: The study examined changes in French general practitioners’ (GPs) antipsychotic preferences between and , a period when evidence. accumulate private wealth (see Frick and Grabka, ). (), Arzneimittelverordnungsreport , Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Stability.

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Further Information Publication History eingegangen am: Disincentives to work persist, particularly for second earners and the low-waged; they include the substantial tax wedge, tax rules, and the lock-in effects of the mini-job earning th reshold. Contributions to headline inflation. The main drivers were the services sector including real estate and to a lesser extent manufact uring e.

The number of foreign nationals in the labour force increased from 3. This is a particular problem for SMEs.

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The introduction helped to increase lower wages at the bottom of the distribution, as expected. Their poverty risk rose from As a result, the adjusted German version of the life cycle savings pattern appears structurally higher acr oss all age cohorts than what one would expect in the light of standard theory. Funding sources of non-financial corporations. European Commission, g This corresponds with the comparatively low adoption of eHealth both among general practitioners and hospitals, an area in which Germany scored below the EU average in a Commission survey European Commission, and b.

Dampened by the expected stable energy prices, this moderate inflation should support household purchasing power. Over time, these various factors have pushed up net savings across all sectors of the economy, while at the same time depressing the consumption and investment ratios.

Remarkable in a European context is the strong focus of the strategies on the productive environment and materials, reflecting the structure of the German economy. High unemployment, a long period of wage moderation and a fall in the total number of hours worked in the first half of the s resulted in low growth in disposable incomes, even if consumer price inflation was supportive of purchasing power.


Government estimates suggest that the current thousand units completed annually need to increase to thousand, while other broad-based studies suggest a gap closer to thousand units over the next five years, to compensate for underinvestment since Investment in intangible assets has continued to gain importance on aggregate, but disparities across sectors and firm sizes are persistent.

Even if fiscal sustainability risks are currently low in Germany, making it more attractive to work more and longer, can help increase old-age income, boost potential output, improve the fiscal outlook, and reduce the need to save for retirement.

Further increases are likely amid favourable demand prospects, not least from the euro area and the rest of the EU. Nevertheless, future deterioration of pension adequacy in the statutory first pillar is expected to increase the risk of poverty in old age, especially for low-wage earners or people with atypical work and interrupted employment history.

Thus, a significant part of the current account surplus in recent years reflects disinvestment by non-residents, rather than German capital exports as it was the case in the past Graph 1. The increasing average age of firm owners, especially where SMEs are c oncerned, could be one of the reasons for their lower research and innovation activity, as older entrepreneurs are typically more risk-averse towards investments in innovation.

Mini-jobs provide flexible arrangements for people who want to work a limited number of hours, but also create lock-in effects. Taxes on income from employment amounted to The agreed reform of federal fiscal relations should further increase investment possibilities at municipal level, even though it falls short of more fundamental changes in terms of increasing tax autonomy of federal states and municipalities.

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Strong domestic demand is expected to keep import growth above export growth, further easing the current account surplus. Seed and early stage financing has recovered since the beginning of the financial crisis in Expenditure on pharmaceuticals is high and growing. Significant headcount reduction usually has up-front costs and lead to cost savings only in the medium term.


Women are particularly affected with an employment rate of Private-sector deleveraging since explains a large part of the surplus, along with th e fiscal stance, and an increasing net international investment position NIIP giving rise to a sizeable positive income balance. However, unlike in most other European countries, that the German employers pay a smaller share Moreover, keeping up with regulatory developments has a large fixed cost component.

Years of restrained growth in consumption have also dampened domestic demand and contributed to the building up of the external surplus. Healthcare efficiency could be improved by better integrating primary, ambulatory specialist an d in-patient care and making better use of eHealth.

A comprehensive long-term investment strategy could also help incentivise more investment by providing clarity and certainty about future developments. The Federal Government has introduced a number of measures aimed at alleviating the shortage of dwellings.

Sincenominal wage growth remained roughly stable even as inflation picked up inresulting in the slowing down of real wage growth. This was seen also as a response by German legislators to the continued erosion of the collective bargaining system and declining bargaining coverage, which resulted in a high share of low paid workers.

More investment could help make affordable housing more widely available. Indespite an overall declining trend, the housing cost overburden rate of people at risk of poverty was still significantly above the EU average Companies are expected to analyse wage developments on a regular basis, prepare a report and undertake measures ensuring equal pay for equal work.

As regards the compliance with the upper limit on the general government structural deficit of 0.