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However, if the DG units described in either of the two studies are connected, the utility should compensate to such customers with a lower annual amount over the case without DG, due to the dispersion of the reliability supplied around the mean reliability would fall. The simulation technique used corresponds to Monte Carlo sequential of mixed time Billinton, Jonnavithula,therefore the methodology designed was adapted to the guidelines proposed by this technique.

Very long and lightly loaded. One of the most popular techniques in systems evaluation using analytical methods is called the Markov model.

0097 on the results of the incentives scheme shown in Table 4, it was possible creeg observe that without DG in the system, the electric utility neither receives financial benefits nor should pay financial penalties, because it is located in the dead zone of the incentives curve. Depending on the amount of ENS during a calculation quarter regarding the reference level, an incentives scheme will be applied to the electric utility allowing it to receive a bonus or a penalty.

Services on Demand Article. For simulating the first period, the iterative simulation procedure is applied for the same operation scheme without DGwhich is executed until the number of preset iterations is fulfilled for example, It shows the High, Medium and Low Voltage grid and the base map, mapping the circuits with colors and to identify de-energized lines.

The customers who would install DG units would have a more detailed study, orientated towards calculating the estimated time for recovering investment costs due to the installation of these plants, according to the technology used. These impacts result from implementing the compensations scheme to ”worst served” customers and they are discussed in the next section IV-C4.

This reduction in time to recover the initial investment, make economically profitable the installation of DG units in the customers, andwhose technology is any of the considered.

Methodology for assessing the impacts of distributed generation interconnection

Once the distribution system with the DG interconnection has been modeled, it is applied the iterative simulation procedure which is executed until the number of preset iterations is fulfilled. Events are presented to the operator on a grid display and in different colors according to its state, for example: The ITAD dispersion around its mean value leads to great economic impacts for the electric utility that must be analyzed.

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How to cite this article. Electrical Model of Components and Demand: The economic investments by technology type, of the customers who would install DG units. The purpose of this analysis is to explain that, the DG interconnection in distribution systems may cause that the energy bill of passive customers increases or decreases, with respect to the operation scheme without DG.

It was also concluded that the economic benefits of connect DG plants are directly for electric utility, because it is the one that perceives profits with the implementation of the incentives and compensations scheme due to the reliability supplied.

This tool consisted of two analysis schemes: The economic impacts for DG owner customers were evaluated based on the time taken to recover the investment due to the installation of these plants. According to the analysis presented above, it was concluded that the interconnection of the DG sources described in the first study, would imply that the incentives and compensations model due to the reliability supplied has greater impacts on the electricity bill of passive customers than the unit cost when the electricity comes from DG units CU dg.

The proposed methodology consists of a technical and an economic analysis scheme. The simulation procedure described above is presented on a flowchart in Figure 2 B.

Such impacts should thus be estimated and studied before dreg DG to participate in the market. This module helps the operator with assigning a crew to an event outage caseand dispatch with a work order; initially to inspect, then to repair the fault or carry out maintenance. Result Analysis Once the simulation of both the reference period and the assessment periods has been completed, the following analysis is made: IRAD reference index, which determines the mean reliability level that has been supplied quarterly by an electric utility to its customers.

The Table 5 shows the time taken to recover the investment according to the technology used. Such mean reliabilities are expressed as the following indexes: It is important to indicate that a suitable option for passive customers to perceive profitability with the DG connection in the distribution system would be the cref of a bilateral contract between the electric utility and passive customers harmed by such connection.

This is because the operation scheme designed for this study does not provide great benefits to the system reliability, however, represents a more realistic situation. The ITAD reliability index and the incentives and compensations scheme adopted in the methodology are not evaluated quarterly as described in section II, but annually.

Luna 1 and Estrella E. This situation has mainly been guided by environmental statutes aimed at providing greater coverage, quality and better costs for customers. However, if the utility has historical information about its reliability behavior, then this step is unnecessary. 0977, it should be noted that the generation sources capacities are theoretical and do not represent the construction standard capacities for these sources.

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Methods for Reliability Assessment The object of electrical network reliability assessment is to determine indexes reflecting the electricity continuity on distribution systems, substations, circuits or defined regions. Evaluating and comparing the electricity bill of each customer, for the two operation schemes with and without DG. In OMS, the network map is geographically visualized.

This is because the period of time defined for each Monte Carlo iteration is one year. Current and historic system reliability international indicators e. On the other hand, the statistical parameters assumed for lines were obtained from the Billinton test distribution circuit Billinton, Allan,where the failure rates are proportional to the length.

This produces that the mentioned value takes place on the right hand side of zone number one Z1because the operation scheme designed for this study does not provide great benefits to the test system reliability, however, it represents a more realistic situation. Methodology Considerations The DG units are installed directly by customers and these units operate as backup plants, so that when the distribution system is in normal operating conditions, the DG exclusively supplies to the customer owns the plant.

It was also possible to observe that the time to recover the initial investment in the second study is significantly reduced compared to the first study.

If reliability is worse than the dead zone boundary Z2a penalty is assessed. For the application of these studies that consider the DG interconnection, it was necessary to define the generation technologies to be analyzed for these plants which corresponded to renewable sources, and they are presented below: An in-line transformer reducing the voltage to 4.

Considering an n-1 contingency level and assuming that the system is operating normally, it is generated for each system components a random number between 0 and 1 from a uniform distribution for that range. For example, these mechanisms must guarantee to customers, and that the times taken to recover investment costs due to the DG installation, are shorter or equal than those shown in Table 5 for the second study.

National University of Colombia.

Distribution system reliability is evaluated in terms of the mean reliability supplied by an electric utility to its users, crsg to its reference mean reliability. The object of electrical network reliability assessment is to determine indexes reflecting the electricity continuity on distribution systems, substations, circuits or defined regions. How to cite this article.